Some time ago, I wrote a post on this blog asking, "How to translate the word torah?" I showed how "nomos" in Homer's Iliad was translated by a couple of different excellent English translators. Then I advised:
Now, go back and read read Numbers 5 in the Greekish Jewish Old Testament called the Septuagint. Notice how the word torah [תּוֹרָה] has been rendered nómos [νόμος]. Notice it's associated with women differently than it's associated with men.The conventional wisdom is that the real difference is not in some application of "nomos" to women. But the critical general difference comes in the application of "nomos" to Christians, by Christians, for Christians. The New Testament is to take the Greek word "nomos" for Christians as the "Law." Christ, then, is offered in contrast to the Law.
And so, for Jewish scholars reading and/ or translating the New Testament, the issue needs addressing. Here's some of that.
First, from Lawrence Kushner's Jewish Spirituality: A Brief Introduction for Christians:
Second, from The Jewish Annotated New Testament:
Third, from Jewish convert to Christianity, David Stern's Complete Jewish Bible, his translation of the Greek letter from Paul to Romans:
14 For whenever Gentiles, who have no Torah, do naturally what the Torah requires, then these, even though they don’t have Torah, for themselves are Torah! 15 For their lives show that the conduct the Torah dictates is written in their hearts. Their consciences also bear witness to this, for their conflicting thoughts sometimes accuse them and sometimes defend themFourth, from Willis Barnstone's Restored New Testament, his translation of the same bit of the Greek letter from Paul to Romans:
When gentiles who do not possess the TorahFor each Greek "nomos" νόμος, there's "Torah."
Practice it naturally, these without Torah
Are themselves Torah. They show that the work
Of Torah is, as Yirmaiyahu writes:
..Written in their hearts.
And their own conscience also bears it witness.
So now there's the Greek word in Greek Isaiah. And what's that doing there? Is it for men or women, for the Jewish ideal of Torah or the Christian of post-Judaic Law?
1:10 - ἀκούσατε λόγον κυρίου ἄρχοντες Σοδομων προσέχετε νόμον θεοῦ λαὸς Γομορρας
2:3 - καὶ πορεύσονται ἔθνη πολλὰ καὶ ἐροῦσιν δεῦτε καὶ ἀναβῶμεν εἰς τὸ ὄρος κυρίου καὶ εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ Ιακωβ καὶ ἀναγγελεῖ ἡμῖν τὴν ὁδὸν αὐτοῦ καὶ πορευσόμεθα ἐν αὐτῇ ἐκ γὰρ Σιων ἐξελεύσεται νόμος καὶ λόγος κυρίου ἐξ Ιερουσαλημ
What's that mean?